I have a 4 cylinder with twice the HP
No idea about a 383, but the narrower the engine, the better. My dad and I swapped a Mustang 289 into a 108 chassis years ago and had to contend with exhaust system differences, steering system issues and draft shaft issues.
The exhaust will have to be custom, from the manifold to the pipe. The stock Benz muffler will still do its job.
The steering linkages were built with another engine in mind. I've since read that the rack from a Chevy Lumina will fit perfectly, but again, you'll need to come up with a custom linkage setup.
Splicing the non Benz tranny's yolk to the Benz driveshaft is easy, but it's a specialized thing that not many folks do. I live in a rural area and the nearest shop that could do this is about 90 miles from me.
Chevy engines are wider than Fords - they can be swapped in but you'll need a contortionist to change the spark plugs, or remove the engine to do so. Chevies also have a different foot print for the oil sumps - they're typically in the way (the Benz cross member is too far back). However, a custom oil pan is not rare and can be ordered from a ton of places (see Hot Rod magazine, for example). An engine from a late model Mustang makes tons of HP and controllers for just the engine, or for the engine and tranny together, are easily found (see Summit Racing, for example).
You'll also need to contend with motor mounts that will either need to be fabricated, or customized to fit the car the engine is going into.
This is a very doable swap, by the way. If you have an angle grinder and a welder, it's just one step in front of another..