1.) Persian Socialist Soviet Republic
The Persian Socialist Soviet Republic (widely known as the Soviet Republic of Gilan) was a short-lived Soviet republic in the Iranian province of Gilan that lasted from June of 1920 until September of 1921. It was established by Mirza Kouchek Khan Jangali, a leader of the Constitutionalist movement of Gilan, and his Jangali (Foresters Movement) partisans, with the assistance of the Soviet Red Army.
Persian Socialist Soviet Republic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2. The Republic of Mahabad (also Republic of Kurdistan), established in Iranian Kurdistan, was the second independent Kurdish state of the 20th century after the Republic of Ararat in Turkey. Its capital was the Kurdish city of Mahabad in northwestern Iran. The Republic was part of the Iran crisis a conflict between the United States and USSR.
The republic was led by President Qazi Muhammad and Minister of Defense Mustafa Barzani. Prime Minister was Hadschi Baba Scheich. The Republic of Mahabad declared independence on January 22, 1946, but the movement was defeated a year later by the army of the central government of Iran. . After the collapse of the republic in 1947, Qazi Muhammad was hanged in public in Chuwarchira Square in the center of Mahabad.
Massoud Barzani, the current President of Iraqi Kurdistan, was born in Mahabad when his father, the late General Mustafa Barzani, was chief of the military of Mahabad declared in Iranian Kurdistan .
Archibald Roosevelt son of the former US-President Theodore Roosevelt, wrote in "The Kurdish Republic of Mahabad" , that a main problem of the peoples Republic of Mahabad, was the kurds needed the power of the USSR. Only with the Red army they
had a chance. But these close relationship to Stalin and the USSR let many kurdish tribes to be in opposition with this kurdish state.had a chance. But these close relationship to Stalin and the USSR let many kurdish tribes to be in opposition with this kurdish state.
3.) In 1941 Britain and the USSR partitioned Iran into two zones of control in order to prevent the country from entering the war on the side of Germany. In the Soviet zone, the Kurds of northwest Iran enjoyed de facto independence. At war's end, Teheran pressured the Soviets to leave, which they did in December 1945. As they left, the Kurds formally proclaimed themselves independent in January 1946, with their capital at Mahabad. The government included many Kurds from Iraq, including Mustafa Barzani, the army commander. Their forces were Soviet-equipped and uniformed, but they owed no ideological allegiance to the USSR. Their flag was the tricolor of the Kurdish Communist Party (Komala) plus a golden sun in the center.
Teheran gradually marshalled its forces, and when they were satisfied the Soviets would not intervene they crushed the Mahabad Republic in December 1946. The leaders were executed, but Barzani led the Iranian forces on a wild goose chase and eventually escaped to the Soviet Union. His escapades contributed much to Kurdish legend and nostalgia for independence. In 1946 he founded the Kurdish Democratic Party, Partiya Demokrata Kurdistane (PDK).
Footnotes: After the Shah of Iran was sent into South African exile, because of his close ties to Germany, the teenage son was crowned.
Only American intervention forced the British to leave Iran’s oil rich Khuzestan Province, which they had occupied.
In 2000, U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright stated, "In 1953 the United States played a significant role in orchestrating the overthrow of Iran's popular Prime Minister, Mohammed Massadegh. The Eisenhower Administration believed its actions were justified for strategic reasons; but the coup was clearly a setback for Iran's political development. And it is easy to see now why many Iranians continue to resent this intervention by America in their internal affairs."  Various controversial policies were enacted, including the banning of the Tudeh Party and the oppression of dissent by Iran's intelligence agency, SAVAK; Amnesty International reported that Iran had as many as 2,200 political prisoners in 1978. By 1979, the political unrest had transformed into a revolution which, on January 16, forced the Shah to leave Iran after 37 years of rule. Soon thereafter, the revolutionary forces transformed the government into an Islamic republic.