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post #1 of 45 (permalink) Old 01-16-2008, 05:23 AM Thread Starter
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Muhammad's Tribe

Why did the Muslim Middle East become so violent? Philip Carl Salzman explains how Bedouin politics became embedded in modern Islamic sociology

Philip Carl Salzman, National Post
Published: Thursday, January 10, 2008


Today's religious map of the Middle East traces to the unification of the Arabian tribes under the banner of Islam in the 7th century, and their subsequent conquest of much of the known world. Muhammad's genius was in finding a way to unite the myriad of fissiparous, feuding Bedouin tribes of northern Arabia into a cohesive polity. Just as he had provided a constitution of rules under which the people of Medina could live together, so he provided a constitution for all Arabs, but this one had the imprimatur not just of Muhammad, but of God. Submission -- Islam -- to God and His rules, spelled out in the Koran, bound Arabian tribesmen into the community of believers, the umma.

Building on the tribal system of "balanced opposition" -- the subject of yesterday's essay -- Muhammad was able to frame an inclusive structure within which the tribes had a common, God-given identity as Muslims. But unification was only possible by creating a tribalized enemy against which Muslims could make common cause. This Muhammad did by opposing Muslims against infidels; and the dar al-Islam, the land of Islam and peace, against the dar al-harb, the land of infidels and conflict. Through the precepts of Islam, traditional Bedouin raiding was sanctified as an act of religious duty.

With every successful battle against local unbelievers, especially after the critical early battle against the Meccans, more Bedouin joined the umma. Once united, the Bedouin warriors of the umma turned outward, teaching the world the meaning of jihad, holy war. The rest, as they say, is history.

The Arabs, in lightning thrusts, challenged and beat the Byzantines to the north and the Persians to the east, both weakened by their continuous wars with one another, thus imposing their control over the Christian majority in the Levant and the Zoroastrian majority in Persia, and therefore over the entire Middle East. These stunning successes were rapidly followed by conquests of Christian and Jewish populations in Egypt, Libya and North Africa's Maghreb (Arabic for "the West"), and, in the east, central Asia and the Hindu population of northern India. Not content with these triumphs, Arab armies invaded and subdued much of Christian Spain and Portugal, and all of Sicily. Since the Roman Empire, the world had not seen such power and reach. All fell before the Saracen blades.

Most accounts of Islamic history, even that of the Lindholm's esteemed The Islamic Middle East, glide over these conquests, as if they were friendly takeovers. But the truth was very different.

The evidence is overwhelming that vast numbers of infidel male warriors and civilians were slain, and that most of those spared, particularly the women and children, were enslaved for domestic and sexual servitude. While men who willingly converted were spared, their wives and children were taken as slaves. In conquered regions, children were

regularly taken from parents, while on the borders -- especially in Central and Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Africa south of the Sahara -- raiding for slaves was normal practice. Of the male slaves, a substantial number were made eunuchs by the removal of sex organs, in order to serve in harems. This account of the Arab campaign in northern India illustrates the usual procedures:

"During the Arab invasion of Sindh (712 CE), Muhammad bin Qasim first attacked Debal…It was garrisoned by 4,000 Kshatriya soldiers and served by 3,000 Brahmans. All males of the age of 17 and upwards were put to the sword and their women and children were enslaved. "[Seven hundred]

beautiful females, who were under the protection of Budh (that is, had taken shelter in the temple), were all captured with their valuable ornaments, and clothes adorned with jewels." Muhammad dispatched one-fifth of the legal spoil to Hajjaj, which included 75 damsels, the other four-fifths were distributed among soldiers."

The multitude of reports from Muslim, indigenous and other sources of the Islamic conquests are equally detailed and equally daunting to a modern reader. It is true that throughout history intergroup relations in most of the world were exploitative and repressive, and not infrequently brutal and bloodthirsty. The world of Islam was not so much an exception to this, as exemplary of it.

The theological foundation of the Arab Empire was the supremacy of Islam and the obligation of each Muslim to advance its domination. The notion of Jihad, in particular, served to establish the Muslim community's permanent state of war against the dar al-harb until the infidels' conclusive submission and the absolute world supremacy of Islam.

Yet even as Islamic armies were coming to dominate the known world, fissures emerged within Islam, which would give rise to the bloody internecine battles that continue to this day in Iraq and elsewhere.

Most notably, the relentless oppositions within tribal life have been reflected on a large scale in the battles between Sunni vs. Shiite, a battle originating in a squabble between closely related kin groups over the leadership of the Islamic empire following Muhammad's death. Their divergent philosophical orientations are based on two tribal principles: Sunnism recognizes leaders based on consent; Shiism recognizes leaders based on descent. The continued anatagonism between the two groups constitutes one of the many ways in which the tribal spirit continues its dominance in the Middle East.

philip.carl.salzman@mcgill.ca

-Philip Carl Salzman is professor of anthropology at McGill University. This article is drawn from his forthcoming book, Culture and Conflict in the Middle East (Humanity Books).

The biggest problems we are facing right now have to do with George Bush trying to bring more and more power into the executive branch and not go through Congress at all and thatís what I intend to reverse.

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post #2 of 45 (permalink) Old 01-16-2008, 06:49 AM
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heh, heh....Phil should stick to facts of Anthropology and not delve into fiction! heh, heh........
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post #3 of 45 (permalink) Old 01-16-2008, 07:57 AM Thread Starter
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heh, heh....Phil should stick to facts of Anthropology and not delve into fiction! heh, heh........
Wonderfully insightful analysis. Thanks ever so much for sharing that for which you have obvious talent.

B

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post #4 of 45 (permalink) Old 01-16-2008, 08:14 AM
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That reads like a mirror image of the catholic church's god-given right, nay, commandment to go forth and subdue and convert heathen filth throughout the land, and return the spoils to the pope's lair.

same shit--same deity--different name

The christians just got and earlier start at theo-imperial conquests
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post #5 of 45 (permalink) Old 01-16-2008, 11:25 AM Thread Starter
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That reads like a mirror image of the catholic church's god-given right, nay, commandment to go forth and subdue and convert heathen filth throughout the land, and return the spoils to the pope's lair.

same shit--same deity--different name

The christians just got and earlier start at theo-imperial conquests
Yes. And thankfully, most of those zealots killed each other 300 years ago. Those that remain are not a significant factor in society at this time. I doubt they ever will be again. The USA has gone through periodic christian religious convulsions (1 or 2 per century) since before the founding of the nation (curiously at the time of our founding we were in a quiescent period). Each wave has been less intense than the previous and each period of secularization takes a more firm grip on power.

I hope the world survives until Islam reaches the same level of inconsequence.

B

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post #6 of 45 (permalink) Old 01-16-2008, 01:43 PM
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Kill em all before they do us in
What else kkkan we dig up on these muslines so "our history" would look a lot more civilized? Let's keep the fear going, it's our patriotic duty yeah yeah
Let ignorance rule, it's a lot easier that way
Those Qureishies are out to get us, you got some more of those Bot?
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post #7 of 45 (permalink) Old 01-16-2008, 03:01 PM
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Wow, I'm starting to think you don't get along with Bot for some reason...
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post #8 of 45 (permalink) Old 01-16-2008, 03:08 PM
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Wow, I'm starting to think you don't get along with Bot for some reason...
Nah nothing personal! Just trying to keep it interesting and probe his vast knowledge of human behavior and of course in relation to ME history, trends etc

Last edited by DP; 01-16-2008 at 03:11 PM.
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post #9 of 45 (permalink) Old 01-16-2008, 06:56 PM
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Nah nothing personal! Just trying to keep it interesting and probe his vast knowledge of human behavior and of course in relation to ME history, trends etc

try here...........Muhammad and Jesus
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post #10 of 45 (permalink) Old 01-16-2008, 10:01 PM
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The problem is not what the two were teaching people it is how people have took what both teacher's have taught so far out of context and have changed what both of them really said into such a Hateful thing as it is now.

I am quite sure that Mohammed did not mean or say for his followers to hate and kill anyone who is different or has made the choice not to follow his teaching the same with Jesus..... It is the power hungry and greedy ones that see a way to twist and use what theses two great teachers said for their own personal gains because there are so many weak minded people in this world that will fall for the perverted versions of the teachings it gives the assholes like bin laudin and others the power to sway them simply by saying do it in the name of our lord..... and they will reguardless of what the task is.

That is why I really take a very negative veiw on religon since it is just another very dangerous way to control large number of people by a select few. And I am not just picking on or at Islam or any religon... it is all of them to some degree Like I am amazzed at how much power the Mormon church has over it's followers and many of them are really brain washed (I know I am in Utah!)

Religon Has its place however not like it is being used world wide to spread hate as it is doing and has been doing for years. We would perhaps be better off with out it.
Who knows? It's people who are weak of the mind need someone to tell them what to do with thier life and when to shit.... and there always has been someone that has a stronger mind with desire to control who is a total asshole.
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