Chucky300 - 7/1/2004 6:32 AM
I always thought that a direct hit or near by hit of a nuke would heat the surface to sufch a high degree that it would literally MELT the cars shell. Does anyone know the following :
a) How hot ground zero of nuke blast would be?
b) What is the melting point of metal (how hot does it need to be for the metal to liquify
a) Depends on the yield of which thermonuclear device is used with your choice of Hydrogen Bomb, Uranium Bomb, Plutonium Bomb, and ...
Some devices are fusion based (H-Bomb fuses hydrogen into deuterium and tritium, but uses an outer shell of uranium to increase the yield, so it is also a fission bomb), some fission based.
The first H-Bomb tested by the US in March of 1954 was actually a fission-fusion-fission bomb, and produced a fireball of 4.8 km in diameter!
Anyway. To sustain the fusion process in H-bomb, temperatures for Deuterium-deuterium fusion of 4.0*10^8 K and for Deuterium-Tritium fusion 4.5*10^7 K. These are necessary to brake what is known as the Coulomb barrier whereby particle's electric repulsion needs to be fought to allow nuclear strong force to fuse the particles. Keep in mind that we are only talking about a sphere of about 2 inches in diameter where these temperatures exist.
Check <a href = "http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/H-bomb"> this </a> for a description of energy released in blast, thermal radiation, ionization radiation and fallout. Note this:
Most of the damage caused by a nuclear weapon is not directly related to the nuclear process of energy release, but would be present for any explosion of the same magnitude
hence the conversion in to an equivalent yield in TNT used to rate the devices (in TNT kilotons and megatons).
The yield will determine how high the temperatures reached by the fireball are. For maximum efficiency of the blast's destructive effects, devices are exploded in the air, so the high temps talked about earlier will not occur where the limo sits.
Assume a Russian SS-17 attack in the 80s, at about 1 second
after detonation of the 5 warheads in altitude, the fireball is 1.1
mile in diameter, with surface temperature of 6,000Ã‚Â° C
(10,800Ã‚Â° F). At 8 seconds, the fireball has grown to its max size of under 1.3 miles and surface temps are around 2,100Ã‚Â°C
b) Depends on the metal. Each has separate characteritics for melting point and sublimation (transformation from solid into gas).
Assuming steel sheet metal, steel melts at around 1,370Ã‚Â°C (2500Ã‚Â°F), (iron melts at around 1,510Ã‚Â°C) so the car could melt, depending on the altitude of detonation, certainly if it was a portable device exploding in the vicinity of the limo.
Steel boils at around 3,000Ã‚Â°C, it could theoretically vaporize (but the cost would be very high, above the 6000C mark for a "delta H of vaporization"), but sublimation is not likely to exist for steel.
A cool example of sublimation is "dry-ice"